Recall that two Riemannian manifolds ${M,N}$ are isometric if there exists a diffeomorphism ${f: M \rightarrow N}$ that preserves the metric on the tangent spaces. The curvature tensor  (associated to the Levi-Civita connection) measures the deviation from flatness, where a manifold is flat if it is locally isometric to a neighborhood of ${\mathbb{R}^n}$.
Theorem 1 (The Test Case) The Riemannian manifold ${M}$ is locally isometric to ${\mathbb{R}^n}$ if and only if the curvature tensor vanishes. (more…)